Bellas Gate Project: technical data
February 2014: 43-101 Technical Report on the Bellas Gate Copper Project (15MB)
January 2015: 43-101 Technical Report on the Bellas Gate Copper Update (15MB)
The Project: The Project: The two Special Explorations Permits composing the Bellas Gate Project (BGP) are located within highly deformed, altered and mineralized Cretaceous rocks primarily volcanics within the Central Inlier of Jamaica (Map 1). The Spaniards mined placer gold in the 16th Century within the Central Inlier and high grade copper veins were mined at two sites there in the mid 1800s. Subsequently, no significant exploration or development was undertaken until the 20th century when exploration was focused on copper; explorationists have just recently become aware of the silver and gold potential at the BGP.
Grab samples at the BGP have yielded up to 45% copper, 4378g/t Ag and 77.1g/t Au at BGP (Map 3). A drill hole from one of three largely unexplored porphyries yielded 166m of 0.56% Cu. Channel sampling of veins has yielded up to 9.2% Cu and 7.5g Au/t over 1 m for a length of 91m, 7.8% Cu over 1.8m and 21.2% Cu over 0.9m.
Future exploration will be focused on defining high grade vein resources, expanding porphyry resources and locating replacement and feeder zones, which primarily acted as source to known high grade veins and the porphyries.
Geology and Mineralization
Regional Geology: Jamaica is a part of the Greater Antilles island arc system, situated on the northern Caribbean Plate margin, which is sliding eastward along the North American Plate (Map 2). Hispaniola, Puerto Rico and Jamaica all lay on the northern margin of the Caribbean Plate. Most geologists believe that the three islands have similar stratigraphy and metallogeny, which opens the potential for porphyry Cu deposits in Jamaica similar to those in Puerto Rico and major gold deposits, such as Pueblo Viejo in the Dominican Republic. Jamaica is an emergent part of the Nicaraguan Rise, a broad, anticlinal, dominantly submerged belt of crustal thickening extending from Honduras to east of Jamaica.
Jamaica itself is comprised of three major groups of rocks:
The Cretaceous basement complex consists of volcanic, volcaniclastics and associated intrusive and coarse clastics. It is believed that the volcaniclastics represent an eroded island arc system. At the end of the Cretaceous period, the basement was uplifted, resulting in an unconformity making the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary.
The Tertiary white and yellow limestones, unconformably overlying the Cretaceous basement complex and conformably overlying Cretaceous trough sediments, cover approximately 70% of the island. Intrusive activity was confined largely to the Cretaceous, Paleocene and Miocene, with major deformation occurring during the early Tertiary.
In areas where the limestone cover is breached, the older sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks are exposed through windows known as inliers. There are seven major and twenty-one minor inliers on Jamaica. The three largest are the Central, the Lucea and the Blue Mountain Inliers. The Central Inlier located in the center of what’s labelled the Clarendon Block on the island structural diagram is a 45km by 15km Inlier, dissected by the Crawle River left-lateral strike-slip fault zone (most recent movement).
Central Inlier Geology: The Central Inlier is dominated by rocks of the early to mid Cretaceous Arthur’s Seat Formation, part of the eastern volcanic group (Map 4). The Arthur’s Seat Formation consists of volcaniclastics, breccias, conglomerates, sandstone, and porphyritic lavas. The Arthur’s Seat rocks are overlain by shallow water limestones, shales and siltstones of the mid-Cretaceous and stocks of diorite and tonalite composition. The most obvious intrusion is the Ginger Ridge stock, dated at 83 million years. All of these rocks are Cretaceous in age. Metallic mineralization has been noted throughout the Arthurs Seat and Peters Hill formation.
Numerous faults cross the Central Inlier (Map 5). The Crawle River left-lateral strike-slip fault appears related to plate tectonics. Other faults seem to be oriented in a NW-SE, N-S and NE-SW directions. The former two systems may have provided passage-ways for intrusions and mineralized fluids. The NE-SW fault appears to be a later faulting system that transacts all earlier faults.
Central Inlier Mineralization and Alteration: The Bellas Gate Project area is the locale of some of the better known copper and gold prospects within the Central Inlier. Disseminated or porphyry-type mineralization associated with intrusive bodies of intermediate composition and their altered host rocks are present at Bellas Gate; these include the Connors, Camel Hill, Geo Hill, Mab and Kola prospects, which are related to zones of fracturing and alteration.
Other deposit types occur within the Bellas Gate area consist of vein, fracture-filling, and bedding plane replacement mineralization. Bergey (1958) classified the Bellas Gate prospects into four main types:
Characteristic Metal Values: Recent collating of samples assayed from the 19th century through today has led to a clustering of deposits and showings tied to alteration zones on fault-controlled trends (Map 6).
Previous Mining and Exploration
The mining history of Jamaica starts in the 16th century with the Spaniards. Although they failed to discover significant gold, they did discover copper and developed copper mines. First recorded shipments of copper dated from 1598. By the mid 1800’s commercial copper production was recorded from several localities. At that time, Wheal Jamaica Copper Co. shipped 207 tons of copper ore grading 14.7% Cu from the Charing Cross underground mine. At the same time, the nearby Stamford Hill Prospect was explored by the Clarendon Consolidated Copper Mining Company of Jamaica by means of a shaft; 187.6m deep with eight levels at about 23m intervals.
From 1906 to 1909 Jamaica Consolidated Copper Company (JCCC) completed 1328m of underground work in 10 separate locations as well as 610 m of open cuts and prospect pits in the Bellas Gate area, primarily around Congo Hill.
Table 1. Underground Workings Documented by JCCC.
Sylvia Mine 250m
Victoria Mine 625m
Cheltra Mine 123m
Iva Mine 104m
Elma Mine 117m
Clarissa Mine 47.5m
Copper Wood Mine 164m
McNeish Tunnel 53m
In the period 1954 to 1955, Base Metals Mining Corporation re-opened the Charing Cross mine and sampled the workings. During the years 1957 to 1970, Jamaica Copper and Iron, and Geophysical Engineering and Surveys Ltd., both formerly related to the Teck Group, emplaced lines 300ft apart with stations at 50 ft intervals along the lines and conducted extensive soil geochemical (242.2 line km), ground magnetic (68.4 line km), self potential (208.4 line km), and resistivity (64.4 line km) surveys. Details of these surveys are lacking. This work led to diamond drilling of at least 23 holes on porphyry copper targets at Camel Hill, Geo Hill, Mab Hill and Connors. An aeromagnetic survey was also completed. During this era about 610m of underground workings at the Charing Cross mine were re-entered by Jamaica Mining Ltd. and were two underground diamond drill holes tested the vein. ASARCO optioned the property in 1963, did some widely spaced IP surveying and a limited amount of drilling, but again details are lacking.
The Mines and Geology Division of the Ministry of Mining and Natural Resources drilled two diamond core holes totalling 338m at Camel Hill in 1973. The holes were drilled at the edge of the copper anomaly and results were modest. In 1984 Hopkins reported that the Jamaica Canada Syndicate collected 1700 soil samples, which were analysed for the Au and indicated anomalies in eight areas, the most important four of which were established as copper anomalies.
Trevcorp acquired the property in 1989 and completed work to confirm previous sampling. By 1990 the result of this work was that an area of about 4km by 5km was covered by soil geochemistry at 200 foot intervals along lines 200 feet apart (Map 9). Trevcorp also rehabilitated the No. 5 adit at the Charring Cross Mine and channel sampled the vein exposed through a distance of 21.5m. Results obtained showed an average grade of 9.16% copper and 0.22 oz. of gold per ton over an average width of 0.46m (Minroc, 1991).
In 1992 Golden Ring Resources initiated a program of diamond and auger drilling to evaluate the Camel Hill and Connors Porphyry Copper deposits that had been previously drilled. The company also did prospecting, trenching, and magnetometer surveys in these areas. Sixty-one tractor-mounted auger drill holes totaling 389m and twenty-four diamond drill holes totaling 3959m, were completed (McArthur and Turnbull, 1992).
The following is a table of significant results. True widths and the exact orientations of the disseminated mineralized zones encountered are not generally known.
Table 2 Summary of Significant Drilling Results. Data from Betmanis, 1969, 1970; Molloy, 1991; McArthur and Turnbull, 1992; and Laird and Vaskovic, 1995.
The procedures for the pre-1992 drilling have not been well described, however drilling in 1992 and later was very well documented. Drill core that was produced during the Prime Explorations program in 1992 is in good condition and is in storage in Kingston at the department of Mines and Geology. It is not known what happened to the older cores or the newer core produced by BHP. Carube is in the process of re-describing and re-assaying portions of this drill core.
CIDA in 1993 published the results of a metallic mineral survey of Jamaica. Some of the geochemical and geophysical work covered the subject property.
Between 1992 and 1995, BHP Minerals International Exploration Inc. (BHP) did extensive geochemical work (3000 soil, 450 rock, and 175 silt samples) and flew 400 km of airborne magnetic, multi-channel spectrometry and VLF-EM surveying on what is now the eastern half of the subject property. Two targets were developed, the Bull Snap Zone and the Kola Zone (Map 10 and Map 11). The Camel-Mab-Geo trend was not covered, being west of BHP’s most western extent of investigation. A total of 5 diamond drill holes were completed for a total of 1205m on the Bull Snap Zone, results were poor. BHP for corporate reasons departed Jamaica before drill testing the Kola Zone.
Clarendon Consolidated Minerals Limited (CCML) acquired the subject Special Exclusive Prospecting in 2005 and 2006. CCML focused most of its activities on the collection and compilation of previous data and prospecting old and new showings to establish the grades of Cu, Au and Ag that might be expected. During 2008 the following tasks were completed:
The values reported on Map 2 include sampling completed by CCML up until early 2011.
Future Exploration and Development:
Strategy: A re-evaluation of Bellas Gate Project (″BGP″) mineralization utilizing modern concepts of mineral deposit formation in conjunction with the present day prices of copper, gold and silver enhance the profitability of mining narrow vein, high grade copper ore with significant gold and silver credits ("enhanced copper mineralization"). BGP offers both enhanced copper mineralization and low grade porphyry copper mineralization with or without gold credits ("porphyry copper mineralization"). However, the apparent near-surface presence and continuity of the enhanced copper mineralization taken into account with the probability of underlying high grade enhanced copper replacement feeder zones or porphyry copper at relatively shallow depths makes them a more attractive target for quick pay-back of capital costs, cash flow and profitability upon development of a mine, than the exposed near surface porphyry copper mineralization at the BGP. Carube’s exploration plan is detailed to outline enhanced copper mineralization and its underlying source of mineralization as its first priority.
Expansion of the porphyry copper mineralization still remains a priority, but with the greater tonnages and capital costs required to initiate mining, cash flow and profitability, it will be secondary at this time.
Action: In order to determine those near-surface high grade showings and prospects, Carube has initiated a program to collate all previous geologic work and all assayed rock and float samples. The geophysical, geochemical and geological, and specifically the copper, gold and silver trends will be instructive in determining the near-surface, high grade prospects.
As can be seen from Map 2, a multitude of high grade targets exist on the property. Analysis of the collected material to date, the presence of two colonial-age copper mines, Stamford Hill and Charing Cross, and the extensive workings at Congo Hill make the Stamford Hill – Congo Hill Corridor (Map 7) the most attractive target at this early stage.
To determine in detail the prospectivity and continuity of the various targets, the present available data will be supplemented with information and insight gleaned from an on-going geochemical soil sampling program being completed over the Stamford Hill – Congo Hill Corridor, a 25m, x 50m grid followed by trenching. An early stage 2000m plus diamond drill program will is planned to test the enhanced copper mineralization targets determined from the geochemical soil sampling.
A limited amount of drilling will be completed on those areas adjacent to the presently defined porphyry copper targets that show the greatest possibility of expansion. Drill core from previous drilling and the present drilling of the porphyry copper targets will be examined to determine the exact nature of the porphyry copper mineralization and its relationship to near-by enhanced copper mineralization and sources of same.